马克Shuttleworth兑现了她的答应，Ubuntu曾经起来初叶于桌面PC以外的商海了。Ubuntu Netbook Remix来了！
First of all, it is worth mentioning that Linux is not the only option
available; other freely
available operating systems include the BSDs (FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD), Solaris Express,
Nexenta, and others. However, there are many GNU/Linux distributions available, and these
generally have support for the widest range of hardware and software. Most of these distributions
can be downloaded and used totally legally, even for production use. Of the Linux
distributions mentioned here, RedHat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) and SuSE Linux Enterprise
Server (SLES) have restricted availability and access to updates; Oracle Solaris is restricted to a
90-day trial period for production use.
Ubuntu Netbook Remix，特地针对于便携式台式机设计，也正是像EEE PC同样的计算机。Ubuntu Netbook Remix基于GNOME桌面情状，可是其余设计了多个新的用户分界面（定制化的Ubuntu Mobile 艾德ition），这一个分界面将代表桌面，进行应用程序和运营和一些系统操作。如下图
Whether you are a new user planning to get your first computer, or someone migrating from Windows or Mac OS X, Ubuntu should be your first choice. It’s extremely easy to install and manage; everything just works out of the box. There are hundreds and thousands of applications available for Ubuntu users, which makes it even more appealing. And the Ubuntu community is extremely friendly so if you need any help you will find it online.
The most user-friendly Linux distribution.
Availability of hundreds and thousands of applications.
GUI for almost every administrative task, no need to deal with the command line.
Very easy to upgrade from one version to another.
Cons: Unity takes some getting used to, as it departs from the traditional
WIMP (windows, icons, mouse, pointer) interface.
Installation of 3rd party software via PPA is cumbersome.
The file manager lacks a lot of basic features.
RHEL is the commercial distribution based on Fedora. It is particularly
popular in North
America and much of Europe. Because the RHEL media includes RedHat trademarks and
some non-Free Software (such as the RedHat Cluster), distribution of the media is restricted
to licensed customers. However, the CentOS project rebuilds RHEL from source, removing
RedHat trademarks, providing a Linux distribution that is totally binary
and source code–compatible
with RHEL. This can be very useful as a lot of commercial software for Linux is tested and
supported only on RHEL, but those vendors will often also support the application running on
CentOS, even if they do not support the OS itself.
RHEL itself is available by paid subscription only. However, CentOS and Oracle Enterprise Linux are
two clones built by stripping the RedHat trademarks from the source code and rebuilding in exactly
the same way as the RedHat binaries are built. CentOS is available from , and
Oracle Enterprise Linux is available from .
Fedora is the community-maintained distribution that feeds into RHEL. It has a highly active,
generally very technical user base, and a lot of developments tested in Fedora first are then pushed
upstream (to the relevant project, be it GNOME, KDE, the Linux kernel, and so on). Like Ubuntu,
it has six-month releases, but a much shorter one-year support cycle. The technologies that have
been proven in Fedora make their way into RedHat Enterprise Linux. As with Ubuntu, KDE,
XFCE, and LXDE respins are available as well as the main GNOME-based desktop. DVD images
can be obtained from .
SLES is Novell’s enterprise Linux. It is based on OpenSUSE, which is the community edition. SLES
and OpenSUSE are particularly popular in Europe, partly due to SuSE’s roots as a German company
before Novell purchased it in 2004. SuSE’s biggest differentiator from other Linux distributions is
its YaST2 configuration tool. SLES has a fairly stable release cycle; with a new major release every
2–3 years, it is updated more frequently than RHEL but less frequently than most other Linux
SLES is available for evaluation purposes from . Like
RedHat Enterprise Linux, a support contract is required to use the full version.
OpenSUSE is to SLES as Fedora is to RHEL — a possibly less stable but more community-focused,
cutting-edge version of its Enterprise relative. Test versions are available before the official release.
OpenSUSE is available from . The main OpenSUSE website is
Ubuntu is based on the Debian “testing” branch, with additional features and customizations. It is
very easy to install and configure, has lots of Internet forums providing support, and is a polished
GNU/Linux distribution. Ubuntu offers a Long-Term Support (LTS) release once every 2 years,
which is supported for 2 years on the desktop and 5 years for servers. There are also regular releases
every 6 months, which are numbered as YY-MM, so the 10-10 release (Lucid Lynx) was released in
October 2010. Although widely known for its desktop OS, the server version, without the graphical
features, is growing in popularity.
Ubuntu can be installed in many ways — from a CD/DVD, a USB stick, or even from within an
existing Windows installation. Instructions and freely downloadable media and torrents are available
from . Many rebuilds of Ubuntu are also available: Kubuntu with KDE
instead of GNOME and Xubuntu with the XFCE window manager, as well Edubuntu, which
includes educational software, and the Netbook Edition tailored for netbook computers.
Debian is one of the older GNU/Linux distributions in mainstream use. It has a team of over 1,000
Debian developers, providing over 30,000 packages. The stable branch is generally released every
5 years or so, so the current stable release can be rather old, although plans are to increase the
frequency of stable releases. The testing branch is popular with many users, providing the latest
packages but without the unpredictability of the unstable branch. Debian
CD/DVD images are
available for direct download, or via BitTorrent, from www.debian.org/CD/.
Many hundreds of GNU/Linux distributions are available. The website
is an excellent resource with information on just about every distribution that exists, as well as other
Unix and Unix-like software. Some other popular distributions worth highlighting include Gentoo,
Damn Small Linux, Knoppix, Slackware, and Mandriva.
Linux Mint is based on Ubuntu and uses Cinnamon as the default desktop environment. There is almost no learning curve because it uses the familiar WIMP interface. Linux Mint has taken the great Ubuntu base and created a desktop environment that borrowed the best features from Gnome
- It’s as easy to install and maintain as Ubuntu.
Pros: Every application that’s available for Ubuntu would technically work
on Linux Mint.
They have forked the file manager so it has more features that the file manager of Ubuntu.
Unlike Ubuntu's Unity, Cinnamon does offer a lot of customization options to personalize your PC.
Cons: Upgrade to the newer version is not possible. You have to reinstall
everything, though they are working on improving it.
Cinnamon is still a work in progress; there are bugs.
Similar to Ubuntu, installing 3rd party software via PPA is not very straightforward.
Mixing Ubuntu repositories may cause problems.
Berkeley Software Distribution, or BSD, is one of the oldest Unix
flavors. It has split into a number
of different developments, the main three of which are listed here. Each flavor of BSD has a different
focus which determines its development style.
FreeBSD is probably the most accessible of the BSDs, with support for a wider variety of hardware.
OpenBSD is a fork of NetBSD and is generally regarded as the most secure Unix system available,
and although its development is often slower, the resulting system is incredibly stable and secure.
OpenBSD is widely used as a router or firewall. As for version 4.9 which was released in May 2011,
only two remotely exploitable security holes have ever been found in a default install of OpenBSD.
Some operating systems find that many in one month.
NetBSD is the most portable of the BSDs, running on PC, Alpha, and PowerPC, as well as ARM,
HPPA, SPARC/SPARC64, Vax, and many others.
Kubuntu is an official flavor of Ubuntu that uses KDE’s Plasma desktop instead of Unity. It is a great distro for those who want the ease of Ubuntu bundled with unlimited customization and features that Plasma desktop offers. If there is one desktop environment that gives the 'Linux' experience, meaning a user can control and tweak every nook and corner of their system, it’s Plasma.
Plasma's file manager Dolphin is one of the most advanced and powerful file managers.
Extremely customizable. Extremely feature rich.
Availability of all the applications that are available for Ubuntu.
Easily upgradable from one version to another, just like Ubuntu.
Too many customization options makes it a bit challenging for new users.
Oracle Solaris traces its roots back to 1983, and is arguably the most
feature-full and actively developed
enterprise OS on the market today. SunOS was originally based on BSD, but with the move to Solaris
switched to the System V flavor of Unix. Solaris today comes with the original Bourne shell as /bin/sh,
as well as ksh93, bash, csh, tcsh, and zsh shells. Solaris is available for SPARC and x86 architectures.
Oracle Solaris is available for download from
solaris/downloads/index.html, which can be used for free in nonproduction use, or on a
90-day trial basis. Solaris Express is a technical preview of the version of Solaris currently in development.
There is also OpenIndiana, a fork of OpenSolaris available at , and
Nexenta, another fork with a GNU user space, at .
IBM AIX is IBM’s Unix for the Power architecture, based on System V Unix. It is available in an
Express edition (limited to four CPU cores and 8GB RAM), the Standard Edition (which does not
have the scalability limitations), and the Enterprise Edition (which adds extra monitoring tools and
features). At the time of this writing, the current version is AIX 7.1, released in September 2010.
HP-UX is HP’s Unix offering, based on System V Unix. It runs on PA-RISC and Intel Itanium systems.
At the time of this writing, the current version of HP-UX is 11iv3, released in April 2008.
OpenSUSE is a perfect OS for those who want great integration of Gnome or KDE with their system. The openSUSE team patches everything to make it work well with the operating system.
OpenSUSE has a gem called YaST (yet another setup tool) that works like a mission control center for the entire operating system. It allows a user to control the entire OS from one place. It’s extremely easy to install and manage. A rolling release version of openSUSE eliminates the need to upgrade your system every six months. OpenSUSE is certainly for a bit more advanced users looking for more control than Ubuntu offers.
Contrary to Ubuntu-based systems it’s extremely easy to install 3rd party applications with ‘one-click’ install from software.opensuse.org.
Uses major desktop environments like Gnome and KDE instead of creating their own.
Offers more customization than Ubuntu.
Upgrading from one version to another is not smooth; fresh re-install is recommended.
Has fewer applications than Ubuntu.
Cygwin is an environment that runs under Microsoft Windows, providing
you with a fairly comprehensive
GNU toolset. If you can’t change to an OS that uses a shell natively, cygwin is a convenient way to
get a fully functioning bash shell and the core utilities (ls, dd, cat — just about everything you would
expect in your GNU/Linux distribution) without leaving Windows. This
means that you have the GNU
tools such as grep, sed, awk, and sort working exactly as they do under Linux. Note that cygwin is
not an emulator — it provides a Windows DLL (cygwin1.dll) and a set of (mainly GNU) utilities
compiled as Microsoft Windows executables (.exe). These run natively under Windows; nothing is
emulated. Figure 2-1 shows cygwin in use. Notice that some of the binaries are named with the .exe
extension used by Microsoft DOS and Windows.
Shell Scripting Expert RECIP ES for Linux, Bash, and More
Seve Parker ISBN: 978-0-470-02448-5
Linux Shell Scrpting with Bash
Linux Shell Scripting Cookbook 4397758.8717885311
Installing Ubuntu Netbook Remix on Ubuntu Hardy 8.04
Arch Linux is my favorite operating system. It is fully customized from the time of installation. A user installs only the components that they need which creates a very lean and optimized OS. Arch is a rolling release distribution so it always runs the latest software - from kernel to apps.
Virtually all Linux apps are available for Arch Linux - either via the official repos or through AUR (Arch user repositories). Unlike Ubuntu or openSUSE, you don’t have to use the browser to find or install third party applications, everything can be done from the terminal using tools like Yaourt or Packer.
Arch Linux is the best OS for those who want to learn how Linux based systems work, as you configure everything manually. It has one of the most comprehensive Wikis, which can be useful even for non Arch users.
Pros: A huge repository of software.
Always has the latest packages.
No need to reinstall for upgrades.
Doesn’t patch anything so you get the vanilla experience of the software you install.
Hard to install; not suitable for a new Linux user.
Needs more maintenance due to rolling release nature.
Packages from AUR are compiled locally, which can take a lot of time.
Everything has to be configured manually so it needs a bit more work than just installing Kubuntu.
So these are my top 5 Linux distributions, which one do you use?
Ubuntu Whether you are a new user planning to get your first computer, or someone migrating from Windows or Mac OS X, Ubuntu should be your first choice...
You may have heard of "Ubuntu Netbook Remix", a special edition of Ubuntu for so called "netbooks", which was showcased by Canonical at Computex.
A quick search revealed, that at this time it seems there isn't any kind of installation ISO or VirtualBox image of Netbook Remix available.
Fortunately, the Ubuntu Netbook Remix Team offers a Personal Package Archive (PPA) of their great work.
A word of warning about installation: The Ubuntu Netbook Remix packages change a lot of settings on Ubuntu Hardy, including session files and Nautilus setup. So DO NOT install the packages on your regular desktop. It might be a good idea to install a Ubuntu Hardy VirtualBox image and use it to add Ubuntu Netbook Remix package to the default desktop.
After you prepared a virtual machine, installation if fairly easy:
1) Add the PPA to your sources list:
deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/netbook-remix-team/ubuntu hardy maindeb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/netbook-remix-team/ubuntu hardy main
2) Update your system and install Ubuntu Netbook Remix:
sudo apt-get updatesudo apt-get install go-home-applet human-netbook-theme maximus ume-launcher window-picker-applet
3) After installation, you need to restart gdm:
sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart
You should now see a running UME-Launcher
If your theme didn't change automatically, please check your appearance settings. There's a new "human netbook theme" available.
There are still some graphical issues with the Netbook desktop, but it's usable right now.
It seems code for Netbook Remix is available at Launchpad.net.
I guess Netbook Remix will come with it's own installation ISO's and a lot of changes regarding the boot process and software selection, compared to the "common" Ubuntu Hardy Heron. But the Netbook Remix PPA offers a glimpse at current development.